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Population and Demography

Luxembourg - Population and Demography

In the 19th century, when Luxembourg was a poor agricultural country, one third of the population emigrated to France and the United States. Since the beginning of the industrialization in the 1870s, the Grand Duchy turned from an emigration country to a popular destination for immigrants and has experienced a strong population growth. In 1910, Luxembourg registered 260,000 inhabitants. In January 2020, the population had risen to over 626,000, having more than doubled in a few decades.

This growth can be divided into four major periods:

  • a decline in the first four decades of the 20th century,
  • a moderate baby boom in the 1950s and 1960s,
  • a very rapid decline in the 1970s
  • an upsurge in growth since the 1990s due to an increase in the birth rate, linked notably to a rise in immigration   

According to the UN Development Programme’s 2017 Human Development Report, Luxembourg is in the very highly developed category, positioning it at 21 out of 189 countries.

Albeit small, Luxembourg’s population is known for its diversity. Almost 50% of the population does not have the Luxembourgish nationality. In addition, every day more than 185.000 citizens from France, Belgium and Germany are commuting and cross the borders to work in the Grand Duchy. Today Luxembourg is one of the most densely populated regions in Europe.

Luxembourg has thus become a truly international and cosmopolitan country, attracting more and more people also from India with the Indian resident population having more than tripled from 2015 to 2020. Today the Indian citizens rank 14th among the foreign nationals living and working in Luxembourg.

For further information read the following publication “ Luxembourg in Figures 2021 ” by the Statistical Office in Luxembourg.