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The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has been an independent Sovereign State since the Treaty of London of 19 April 1839. Luxembourg is a Parliamentary Democracy in the form of a constitutional Monarchy. The crown of the Grand Duchy is hereditary in the Nassau Royal House according to the family pact of 30 June 1783 and Luxembourg remains the only Grand Duchy in the world.

The sovereign power resides in the Nation and His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Luxembourg exercises the sovereign power, in accordance with the Constitution and the laws of the country. Since 7 October 2020, the current Grand Duke is the Head of State, the symbol of its unity and the guarantor of national independence.  

In 1919, the revision of the Constitution and the introduction of universal suffrage marked a turning point in the political life of the Grand Duchy. Before this date, the right to vote was subject to a poll tax, in other words a certain amount of tax paid, and restricted to the male population aged 25 and over. After the revision of 1919, all male and female citizens who reached the age of 21 were given the right to vote. In 1972, the voting age was brought down to the age of 18. Voting in Luxembourg is compulsory for registered electors and therefore the rate of participation in elections is among the highest in the European Union.  


Luxembourg's institutions are organised according to the principle of the separation of powers. In Luxembourg's institutional context, this separation is soft as there are many links between the Executive power and the Legislative power.

Executive power

His Royal Highness the Grand Duke is the head of State who exercises the sovereign power in accordance with the Constitution and the laws of the country. The Constitution grants the head of State considerable prerogatives. The Grand Duke participates in the legislative power and exercises executive power and ratifies treaties ensuring the interests of the State and the citizens.    

Legislative power

The Grand Duchy has a unicameral parliamentary system and the Legislative power is exercised by the parliament, the Chamber of Deputies. The Chamber of Deputies has the duty of voting bills presented by the Government or on bills submitted on a parliamentary initiative by one or more deputies. By the Constitution, the Chamber of Deputies has certain powers in financial matters and the right to examine the Government’s actions.  

Judicial power

The Constitution and special acts of legislation lay down the foundations of the judicial power that is exercised by the courts and tribunals. They are independent in the exercise of their functions and kept free from any influence from the executive or legislative powers.

The Constitutional Court rules on the conformity of laws with the Constitution. It is composed of nine members and comprises a single Chamber composed of five judges. The Constitutional Court decides by way of judgements which are published in the “Mémorial”, the Official Journal of the Grand Duchy within 30 days of their delivery.  

The Courts of law include the three Magistrate’s Courts, the two District Courts and the Supreme Court of Justice. Created following the last constitutional reform of 12 July 1996, the administrative jurisdictions are composed of the Administrative Court and the Administrative Tribunal.    


The Council of State was instituted at the time of the constitutional review of 27 November 1856. It is an independent institution and acts as a consultative body in the legislative procedure. All bills submitted by either the Government or the Chamber of Deputies require the opinion of the Council of State. It is composed of 21 councillors. The members of the Council of State are formally appointed and dismissed by H.R.H. the Grand Duke following proposals made by the Government, the Chamber of Deputies or the Council itself.   

Download the brochure “ The Council of State ” 



The first Constitution, the supreme law of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, was drafted in 1841 and came into effect on 1 January 1842, two years after the independence of Luxembourg in 1839. The current Constitution was implemented on 17 October 1868, but has been revised several times over the last decades.

The Constitution proclaims the fundamental rights and sets out the state's major principles of operation. While the Constitution is more rigid and its revision procedure is more laborious, laws are modified more frequently. The Council of State may draw the Government's attention to the opportunity for new laws or new regulations or modifications to be introduced into existing laws and regulations.


Xavier Bettel (DP) Prime Minister, Minister of State, Minister for Communication and Media, Minister for Religious Affairs, Minister for Digitisation, Minister of the Administrative Reform
Paulette Lenert (LSAP) Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for Consumer Protection, Minister of Health, Minister Delegate of Social Security
François Bausch (Dei Gréng) Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Defence, Minister for Mobility and Public Works
Jean Asselborn(LSAP) Minister of Foreign and European Affairs, Minister of Immigration and Asylum
Yuriko Backes (DP) Minister of Finance
Franz Fayot (LSAP) Minister of the Economy, Minister for Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Affairs
Claude Meisch (DP) Minister of Education, Childhood and Youth, Minister for Higher Education and Research
Corinne Cahen (DP) Minister for Family Affairs and Integration, Minister for the Greater Region
Carole Dieschbourg (Dei Gréng) Minister for the Environment, Climate and Sustainable Development
Marc Hansen (DP) Minister for the Civil Service, Minister for Relations with Parliament, Minister Delegate for Digitisation, Minister Delegate for the Administrative Reform
Claude Turmes (Dei Gréng) Minister for Spatial Planning, Minister for Energy
Claude Haagen (LSAP) Minister of Agriculture,Viticulture and Rural Development, Minister of Social Security
Sam Tanson (Dei Gréng) Minister for Culture, Minister of Justice
Taina Bofferding (LSAP) Minister of Equality between Women and Men, Minister for Home Affairs
Lex Delles (DP) Minister for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, Minister for Tourism
Georges Engel (LSAP) Minister of Sport, Minister of Labour, Employment and the Social and Solidarity Economy
Henri Kox (Dei Gréng) Minister for Housing, Minister of Internal Security

DP: Democratic Party 

LSAP: Luxembourg Socialist Workers Party

Dei Gréng: Luxembourg Green Political Party


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